F. Procedures Commonly Performed/Obtained in Neuro-Ophthalmology

I. Surgical and endovascular procedures and their complications


1. Know the principles of some surgical procedures (only ophthalmology-trained neuro-ophthalmologists may have practical experiences with these procedures).
2. Understand and recognize the complications of surgical procedures commonly performed by or ordered by neuro-ophthalmologists.


1. Temporal artery biopsy(1)
2. Principles and complications of strabismus surgery(1)
3. Canthotomy, cantholysis(2)
4. Approaches for orbital biopsies and orbital tumors(2)
5. Optic nerve sheath fenestration(1)
6. Orbital decompression(1)
7. CSF shunting procedures(1)
8. Monitoring of intracranial pressure(1)
9. Pituitary surgery (transphenoidal adenomectomy)(3)
10. Interventional neuroradiology techniques(3) 

  1. Cerebral angiography and venography(3) 
  2. Embolization(3) 
  3. Angioplasty(3) 
  4. Stenting(3) 
  5. Intravenous and intra-arterial thrombolysis(3)

II. Botulinum toxin therapy


1. Know the principles and side-effects of botuninum toxin therapy.
2. Be familiar with the neuro-ophthalmic indications for botulinum toxin therapy.


1. Treatment of blepharospasm, hemifacial spasm, Meige syndrome(2)
2. Treatment of strabismus(2)

Proposed by the Curriculum of the North American Neuro-Ophthalmology Society (NANOS)

Next: G. Patient's Counseling