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A. Anatomy and Physiology for the Neuro-Ophthalmologist


Know anatomical structures relating to the afferent and efferent visual pathways.

Know the surgical anatomy of the eye and orbits.

Understand the function of the visual system and its control.


1. Bony anatomy(2)

1. Orbit
2. Bony communications 

1. Superior orbital fissure
2. Optic canal 
3. Inferior orbital fissure 
4. Ethmoidal foramina

3. Skull 

1. Anterior cranial fossa 
2. Middle cranial fossa 
3. Posterior cranial fossa

2. Anatomy of the orbit, the eyelids, and the lacrimal pathways(2)

3. Afferent visual pathways(1)

1. Anatomy and physiology of the eye
2. Retina
3. Optic nerve
4. Optic chiasm
5. Optic tract
6. Lateral geniculate
7. Optic radiations
8. Calcarine cortex
9. Association areas

4. Efferent visual pathways(1)

1. Supranuclear input
2. Cerebellar connections
3. Nuclear centers
4. Ocular motor nerves 

1. Abducens (VI) 
2. Trochlear (IV)
3. Oculomotor (III)

5. Extraocular muscles
6. Vestibular pathways

5. Facial motor anatomy(2)

6. Sensory anatomy (trigeminal system) (2)

7. Autonomic anatomy(1)

1. Sympathetic
2. Parasympathetic 

1. Lacrimal 
2. Pupil

8. Vascular anatomy(2)

1. Arterial anatomy 

1. Internal carotid arteries and their branches 
2. Circle of Willis 
3. External carotid arteries and their branches 
4. Vertebrobasilar system 
5. Aortic arch 
6. Blood supply of the orbit, eye and optic nerve(1)

2. Venous anatomy 

1. Cerebral venous sinuses and deep venous system 
2. Cortical veins 
3. Venous drainage in the neck
4. Venous drainage of the eyes and orbits

Proposed by the Curriculum of the North American Neuro-Ophthalmology Society (NANOS)

Next: B. Ocular and Neurologic Evaluation